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Foundation-2-Freedom Panel - Discussion Group

Public·18 Attendees
Ryan Mitchell
Ryan Mitchell


Biologists are able to study life at multiple levels of organization,[1] from the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations.[1][6] Hence, there are multiple subdisciplines within biology, each defined by the nature of their research questions and the tools that they use.[7][8][9] Like other scientists, biologists use the scientific method to make observations, pose questions, generate hypotheses, perform experiments, and form conclusions about the world around them.[1]


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The basis for modern genetics began with the work of Gregor Mendel in 1865.[26] This outlined the principles of biological inheritance.[27] However, the significance of his work was not realized until the early 20th century when evolution became a unified theory as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics.[28] In the 1940s and early 1950s, a series of experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units that had become known as genes. A focus on new kinds of model organisms such as viruses and bacteria, along with the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, marked the transition to the era of molecular genetics. From the 1950s onwards, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain. The genetic code was cracked by Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg after DNA was understood to contain codons. The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 to map the human genome.[29]

All organisms are made up of chemical elements;[30] oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen account for most (96%) of the mass of all organisms, with calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium constituting essentially all the remainder. Different elements can combine to form compounds such as water, which is fundamental to life.[30] Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms, and interactions.

Gene expression is the molecular process by which a genotype encoded in DNA gives rise to an observable phenotype in the proteins of an organism's body. This process is summarized by the central dogma of molecular biology, which was formulated by Francis Crick in 1958.[70][71][72] According to the Central Dogma, genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. There are two gene expression processes: transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to protein).[73]

Evolution is a central organizing concept in biology. It is the change in heritable characteristics of populations over successive generations.[82][83] In artificial selection, animals were selectively bred for specific traits.[84] Given that traits are inherited, populations contain a varied mix of traits, and reproduction is able to increase any population, Darwin argued that in the natural world, it was nature that played the role of humans in selecting for specific traits.[84] Darwin inferred that individuals who possessed heritable traits better adapted to their environments are more likely to survive and produce more offspring than other individuals.[84] He further inferred that this would lead to the accumulation of favorable traits over successive generations, thereby increasing the match between the organisms and their environment.[85][86][87][84][88]

Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.[160][161][162] It is concerned with factors that influence the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biodiversity and the science of sustaining evolutionary processes that engender genetic, population, species, and ecosystem diversity.[163][164][165][166] The concern stems from estimates suggesting that up to 50% of all species on the planet will disappear within the next 50 years,[167] which has contributed to poverty, starvation, and will reset the course of evolution on this planet.[168][169] Biodiversity affects the functioning of ecosystems, which provide a variety of services upon which people depend. Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends of biodiversity loss, species extinctions, and the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society. Organizations and citizens are responding to the current biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research, monitoring, and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales.[170][163][164][165]

Current Biology is a general journal that publishes original research across all areas of biology together with an extensive and varied set of editorial sections. A primary aim of the journal is to foster communication across fields of biology, both by publishing important findings of general interest from diverse fields and through highly accessible editorial articles that explicitly aim to inform non-specialists.

The EEOB department is responsible for instruction of the Biology major -- consistently among the largest majors on campus. We teach classes ranging from molecular and cellular biology, to ecology, evolution, and physiology of living organisms.

Our department conducts research, teaching, and service in many areas of the life sciences, including animal behavior, behavioral endocrinology, biomechanics, cell biology, conservation biology, ecology, ecomorphology, evolution, genetics, physiology, population biology, systematics, and theoretical ecology. Our graduate program is also named EEOB and offers Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees, with an emphasis on the latter. We are also part of the Evolutionary Biology Joint-Doctoral Program with San Diego State University. In addition, our faculty and graduate students are affiliated with several interdepartmental graduate programs, including: Biophysics; Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology; Genetics, Genomics, and Bioinformatics; Biomedical Sciences; and Neuroscience. We also offer many opportunities for undergraduate research.

The EEOB Graduate Program, part of the Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, offers graduate study leading to both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. As a member of the program, you will have a unique and diverse set of educational experiences, including: a broad background in evolution, ecology, and organismal biology; exposure to exciting and modern research; training in pedagogy and the opportunity to teach undergraduate laboratories and discussion sections; and immersion in your specific area of concentration. These experiences will serve you well while in graduate school and also prepare you for a successful career in biology.

Unlocking the origins and biology of domestic animals using ancient DNA and paleogenomicsGillian P. McHugo, Michael J. Dover and David E. MacHugh Published in BMC Biology 02 December 2019

The Biology exam covers material that is usually taught in a one-year college general biology course. The subject matter tested covers the broad field of the biological sciences, organized into three major areas: molecular and cellular biology, organismal biology, and population biology.

The Biology Department at Bates is a vibrant group of teacher-scholars dedicated to instilling in our students a love of biology and respect for the natural world while working earnestly to develop a program that embraces anti-racism, equity and inclusive pedagogies to deliver an excellent STEM education in which all of our students will thrive. Our Statement on Equity and Inclusion summarizes our recent efforts toward these goals.

Duke Biology is one of the few broad Biology Departments in the country, providing students, faculty, and staff with the opportunity to learn and perform research in a highly integrative and interactive setting. Our department hosts over 50 faculty, studying areas spanning developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution, organismal biology, and genomics.

We are an integrative department taking a connective approach to the life sciences, fostering collaboration and intellectual partnerships across many different disciplines. The research and teaching we do spans from cellular and molecular biology to global climate change, and from bacterial microevolution in the lab to evolution and extinctions hundreds of millions of years ago. Unlike most other biology departments, ours is unique in its integration across organismal and organizational boundaries, its open and collaborative atmosphere, and the broad set of units and programs at the UW (and beyond) in which our faculty and students participate (e.g., Friday Harbor Labs, Allen Institute, Burke Museum). We relish working at the boundaries and across disciplines and are excited to find new ways to do so. We are not only the largest UW department, but also the largest producer of STEM degrees in Washington. Our success as a department is driven by the curiosity of our faculty, students, postdocs, and staff. They uphold our research and education missions through the quality of their work in classrooms, labs, field sites, and beyond. We recognize that diversity and diverse connections within our community are essential for generating novel ideas and approaches, and are working hard to create a truly equitable, inclusive and accessible department to promote such diversity. Come join the next generation of educators, researchers, policy leaders, and entrepreneurs!

Loyola's Donnelly Science Center features state-of-the-art instructional labs and facilities for cell culture, neurobiology, forensic analysis, anatomy, and microscopy. Take advantage of our 24/7 Bio Student Learning Center and additional spaces designed for studying and group work. 041b061a72


Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...


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